During developmental angiogenesis, blood vessels grow and remodel to ultimately build a hierarchical vascular network. Whether, how, cell death signaling molecules contribute to blood vessel formation is still not well understood. Caspase-8 (Casp-8), a key protease in the extrinsic cell death–signaling pathway, regulates cell death via both apoptosis and necroptosis. Here, we show that expression of Casp-8 in endothelial cells (ECs) is required for proper postnatal retina angiogenesis. EC-specific Casp-8–KO pups (Casp-8ECKO) showed reduced retina angiogenesis, as the loss of Casp-8 reduced EC proliferation, sprouting, and migration independently of its cell death function. Instead, the loss of Casp-8 caused hyperactivation of p38 MAPK downstream of receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and destabilization of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) at EC junctions. In a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) resembling retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), loss of Casp-8 in ECs was beneficial, as pathological neovascularization was reduced in Casp-8ECKO pups. Taking these data together, we show that Casp-8 acts in a cell death–independent manner in ECs to regulate the formation of the retina vasculature and that Casp-8 in ECs is mechanistically involved in the pathophysiology of ROP.
Nathalie Tisch, Aida Freire-Valls, Rosario Yerbes, Isidora Paredes, Silvia La Porta, Xiaohong Wang, Rosa Martín-Pérez, Laura Castro, Wendy Wei-Lynn Wong, Leigh Coultas, Boris Strilic, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Thomas Hielscher, Carolin Mogler, Ralf H. Adams, Peter Heiduschka, Lena Claesson-Welsh, Massimiliano Mazzone, Abelardo López-Rivas, Thomas Schmidt, Hellmut G. Augustin, Carmen Ruiz de Almodovar
Usage data is cumulative from August 2019 through February 2020.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.