Hypoxia is a prominent characteristic of many acute or chronic inflammatory diseases, and exerts significant influence on their progression. Macrophages and neutrophils are major cellular components of innate immunity and contribute not only to O2 deprivation at the site of inflammation, but also alter many of their functions in response to hypoxia to either facilitate or suppress inflammation. Hypoxia stabilizes HIF-αs in macrophages and neutrophils, and these O2-sensitive transcription factors are key regulators of inflammatory responses in myeloid cells. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of the role of HIF-αs in shaping macrophage and neutrophil functions in the pathogenesis and progression of multiple inflammatory diseases.
Nan Lin, M. Celeste Simon
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